In a further stage of joint research from 2014, and applying the more accurate analysis methods developed by the three American universities, Hitachi will continue to evaluate the safety and performance of the new reactor concepts, and will study plans for tests with a view towards practical applications. Commercial operation in Japan since 1996-7. Four are planned in the UK. First, the AP1000 footprint is very much smaller – about one-quarter the size, secondly the concrete and steel requirements are lower by a factor of five*, and thirdly it has modular construction. A larger US design, the Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), is planned as modules of 285 MWe each directly driving a gas turbine at 48% thermal efficiency. In the DUPIC fuel cycle, a dry processing method would convert spent Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel to CANDU fuel. Inherent or full passive safety depends only on physical phenomena such as convection, gravity or resistance to high temperatures, not on functioning of engineered components, but these terms are not properly used to characterise whole reactors. Planned for Akkuyu in Turkey (V-509). Fuel is initially similar to present LWRs with 5% enrichment and burnable poison, in fact fuel assemblies are "identical to those ... in the AP1000". 0000005192 00000 n AECL Candu-6 & ACR publicity, late 2005 Poland appears to be a candidate for the demonstration plant. Based on this, KOPEC has developed an EU version (APR1400-EUR or EU-APR) with double containment and core-catcher which was given EUR approval in October 2017. US design certification was at pre-application review stage, but the concept appears to have evolved into the Westinghouse SMR. %PDF-1.3 %���� It was the basis of the Korean Next Generation Reactor programme and many of its design features are incorporated into eight South Korean reactors, specifically the APR1400, which is operating in South Korea and being built in South Korea and the UAE and marketed worldwide. The requirement of being able to use natural uranium in the CANDU reactor has resulted in a reactor and fuel design having excellent The BN-1200 has a capacity of 2900 MWt (1220 MWe gross), a 60-year design life, and burn-up of up to 120 GWd/t. It is being built in China (four units under construction, with many more to follow) and in the USA (initially four units at two sites). But the ACR-1000 of 1080-1200 MWe (3200 MWt) became the focus of attention by AECL (now Candu Energy Inc). Its emergency core cooling system (ECCS) has four independent trains, and its outer walls and roof are 1.8 m thick. The 280 MWe Monju prototype commercial FBR was connected to the grid in 1995, but was then shut down for 15 years due to a sodium leak. Two examples built by Hitachi and two by Toshiba have been in commercial operation in Japan (1315 MWe net), with another two under construction there and two in Taiwan. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) started the research on RMWRs in 1997 and then collaborated in the conceptual design study with the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPCO) in 1998. It represented the culmination of a 1300 man-year and $440 million design and testing program. In addition, a 400 MWe version was envisaged. The pressure vessel for Olkiluoto was forged in Japan, and those for Taishan by MHI and Dongfang Electric. The Hualong One thus has 177 fuel assemblies 3.66 m long, 18-24 month refuelling interval. It will have 60-year life and is capable of load-following. The Pu & DU fuel is metal, and obtained from used light water reactor fuel. European Utility Requirements (EUR) since 2001 specify that new reactor designs must be capable of load-following between 50 and 100% of capacity. The CANDU/PHWR is an optimal reactor choice for developing nations, when equipped with the right fuel. In June 2012 Rosatom said it would apply for design certification in UK through Rusatom Overseas, with the VVER-TOI version. It is a four-loop design with 257 fuel assemblies and neutron reflector, is simpler, combines active and passive cooling systems in a double containment, and has over 55 GWd/t fuel burn-up. Carroll D & Boardman C, 2002, The Super-PRISM Reactor System, The Nuclear Engineer 43,6; It is significantly different from preceding BN models, and Rosatom plans to submit the BN-1200 to the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) as a Generation IV design. It is a two-loop design based on the V-491 St Petersburg version of the VVER-1200 and using the same basic equipment but without core-catcher (corium retained within RPV). 0000001151 00000 n Assuming that a 40 MWd/kg exit burnup was achieved in the CANDU reactors, the fuel cycle yielded an 82% savings of natural uranium, compared to a scenario in which all power came from PWRs, while a 20 MWd/kg exit burnup increased the savings to 94%. Three major international initiatives have been launched to define future reactor and fuel cycle technology, mostly looking further ahead than the main subjects of this paper: The Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) was launched in 2006 by the US NRC and the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) to develop innovative approaches to leverage the resources and knowledge of national regulatory authorities reviewing new reactor designs. The reactor is regarded as mid-sized relative to other modern designs and will be marketed primarily to countries embarking upon nuclear power programs. The planned APWR+ is 1750 MWe and has full-core MOX capability. Two of them fell into the category of large 'evolutionary' designs which build directly on the experience of operating light water reactors in the USA, Japan and Western Europe. The EC6 has design features, notably its automated refuelling, which enable third-party process monitoring in relation to non-proliferation concerns.
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